No definite cause is known. However, a number of risk factors are related to development and progression of coronary artery disease. Risk factors can be grouped into two categories :
(a) Non modifiable – These factors can not be changed by a person.
(b) Modifiable – These factors can be changed.
There are 3 main non-modifiable risk factors
(i) Male Gender
(ii) Old Age
(iii) History of coronary artery disease in parents or siblings
These factors are related to personal habits and lifestyle and can be modified. Modifiable risk factors can be grouped into Primary and Secondary risk factors.
(i) Primary modifiable risk factors
b. High blood pressure
c. Increased levels of cholesterol and other fats in blood
d. Diabetes – uncontrolled
e. Ambitious, anxious personality
(ii) Secondary modifiable risk factors
b. Lack of exercise
More is the number of risk factors, greater are the chances of developing coronary artery disease.